What is bladder cancer?
Bladder cancer accounts for 3.3% of all tumors, being more frequent in men (4.7%) than in women (1.6%).
In Spain, according to the Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC), about 12,200 cases are diagnosed annually. 12,200 cases a yearThis represents 11% of male tumors (10,700 cases) and 2.4% of female tumors (1,500 cases). The incidence in our country is one of the highest in the world, being the 4th most frequent tumor in men, after lung, prostate and prostate cancer. after lung, prostate and colorectal tumors.
Most cases are diagnosed in the decade between 60-70 years of age. 60-70 years of age and are linked to the consumption of tobacco primarily.
The appearance of blood in the urine is the most frequent symptom.. Pain or stinging when urinating or increased frequency of urination may also be indicative of the presence of a bladder tumor, which may lead to the need to consultation to the urologist who will prescribe a series of diagnostic tests.
Once the existence of the tumor is confirmed, it would be resected transurethrally. transurethral resection under epidural anesthesia. This procedure consists of introducing an instrument with an electric scalpel through the urethra to remove the lesion for its subsequent analysis and correct identification.
Once the cellular aggressiveness and the infiltration of the bladder wall in certain cases have been assessed, the search for and localization of possible metastases is carried out by means of imaging tests (thoracoabdominal-pelvic CT and bone scintigraphy).
In tumors with superficial infiltration of the bladder wall, the transurethral resection (TUR) and subsequent bladder instillations with drugs of local action and very good tolerance (Mitomycin C or BCG). These instillations are performed periodically and on an outpatient basis, introducing a fine urethral catheter into the bladder through which the drug is administered. Subsequent check-ups subsequent check-ups are essential.
In non-metastatic tumors with deep infiltration of the bladder wall, the treatment of choice is to remove the bladder, prostate and seminal vesicles in men and the bladder, uterus and ovaries in women. (radical cystectomy) and the neighboring lymph nodes (bilateral iliobturator lymphadenectomy). In the same intervention, the urine is diverted to the exterior:
Each of these referrals carries certain specific advantages and risks that should be carefully discussed before making a final decision as they will influence the prognosis and postoperative quality of life.