What is prostate cancer?
Prostate cancer has its origin in an abnormal growth of tumor cells in the prostate gland.
According to the American Cancer Society, one in eight men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in his lifetime.
This tumor develops primarily in older, black males. and black men, in fact, six out of ten cases are diagnosed in men.In fact, six out of ten cases are diagnosed in men over 65 years of age. over 65 years of ageIt is very infrequent in men under 40 years of age.
Causes of prostate cancer
The family history and ethnicity are associated with a higher incidence of prostate cancer, suggesting a genetic predisposition to prostate cancer. genetic predisposition. Other environmental factors have also been associated with prostate cancer incidence and prognosis.
What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?
Initially, prostate carcinoma is located in the prostate gland and does not produce symptoms. does not produce symptoms. In advanced casesprostate cancer may present with symptoms. with symptoms such as hematuria (blood in the urine), decreased urine flow, bone pain, etc.
Your growth is slow so the diagnosis is usually early and the treatments can be curative.
When should we have a check-up?
Early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer achieves a cure rate of close to 100%.
For this reason, medical attention by a urologist is recommended. specialist in urology for a check-up starting at age 50 screening from the age of 50 years, or 45 years when there is a history of prostate cancer in direct line.
This examination consists of a physical examination and the determination of PSA (prostate specific antigen) in a blood test.
What is PSA for?
It is important to note that PSA is not specific for prostate cancer and may be elevated by other alterations of the prostate gland (benign growth: benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), infections, prostate enlargement, etc...) that would require complementary explorations to make a differential diagnosis.
The prostate biopsy is the one that provides the definitive diagnosis, but we must try to avoid unnecessary biopsies and "false negatives". In this sense we have complementary tests available (PCA3, 4K Score, Select MDX, etc) and Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the prostate, which will provide us with very approximate data on the existence and location of a possible carcinoma in order to direct the biopsy to the suspicious area. (Prostate biopsy guided by fusion of images).
The prostate biopsy informs us about the degree of aggressiveness of the tumor (Gleason scale) and, based on this, an extension study is performed. extension study (CT, bone scintigraphy, PET-CT Choline or PET-PSMA) to rule out possible metastasis (tumor localization in the rest of the body) in cases of prostate carcinoma in advanced stages.
Once the grade and stage of the tumor are known, several curative treatment options are considered. various treatment options with curative intent, depending on the patient's age, general condition and opinion.